Who Ruled India after the British

Between 1601 and 1608, four voyages left Britain to begin trade with the East Indies. Initially, the company fought in the spice trade due to competition from the already well-established Dutch East India Company. The East India Company (EIC or the Company) opened a factory in Bantam on the first voyage and importing Java pepper was an important part of the company`s trade for 20 years. Over the next two years, it established its first factory in South India in the city of Machilipatnam in Bengal. The high profits reported by the company after landing in India first prompted King James I to grant subsidiary licenses to other trading companies in England. But in 1609 he renewed indefinitely the charter given to the EIC, including a clause stating that the charter would be abandoned if the trade became unprofitable for three consecutive years. Locally, British control rested with the Indian Civil Service (ICS), but it faced increasing difficulties. Fewer and fewer young men in Britain were interested in joining, and persistent distrust of Indians led to a decline in the base in terms of quality and quantity. Until 1945, Indians were numerically dominant in the ICS and these were loyal divisions between empire and independence. [71] The Raj`s finances depended on property taxes, and these became problematic in the 1930s. Epstein argues that after 1919, it became increasingly difficult to collect land revenue.

The Raj`s crackdown on civil disobedience after 1934 temporarily increased the power of tax officials, but after 1937 they were forced by the new provincial governments controlled by Congress to return confiscated land. Again, the outbreak of war intensified them, in the face of the Quit India movement, tax collectors had to rely on military force, and in 1946-47 direct British control quickly disappeared in large parts of the country. [72] From 1858 to 1909, the Indian government was an increasingly centralized paternal despotism and the largest imperial bureaucracy in the world. The Indian Councils Act of 1861 transformed the Viceroy`s Executive Council into a miniature cabinet managed according to the portfolio system, and each of the five ordinary members was tasked with directing a specific department of the Kolkata government – homeland, income, army, finance and law. The Commander-in-Chief of the Army sat with this Council as an associate member. A sixth full member was assigned to the Viceroy`s Executive Council after 1874, first to head the Department of Public Works, which after 1904 was called Commerce and Industry. Although the Indian government is, by legal definition, the “Governor-General of the Council” (Governor-General remains the alternative title of Viceroy), the Viceroy is empowered to annul the members of his council if he deems it necessary. He personally took over the direction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which was mainly concerned with relations with princely states and neighbouring foreign powers. Few viceroys considered it necessary to assert their full despotic authority, as the majority of the members of their council generally agreed.

However, in 1879, Viceroy Lytton (1876-80) was forced to overturn his entire council to comply with his government`s demands to abolish import duties on British cotton factories, even though India desperately needed income in a year of widespread famine and agricultural unrest. Until the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the territories of the East India Company (EIC or the Company) in India, which consisted largely of the presidential cities of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, were governed by predominantly autonomous – and sporadically unmanageable – municipal councils all composed of merchants. The boards barely had enough power to effectively manage their local affairs, and the resulting lack of oversight of the company`s overall operations in India led to serious abuses by the company`s senior management and their allies. Control of wealthy Bengal won after the Battle of Plassey put India in the public spotlight in Britain, and the company`s money management practices were questioned. Britain, on the other hand, had no indigenous written language until the 9th century AD (nearly 3,000 years after India). The population in 1850 was about 21 million. How, then, did Britain manage to control India from 1757 to 1947? The keys seem to have been superior weapons, economic power and Eurocentric confidence. For all the elements of the tragic farce in Manto`s stories and the tortured mindset of Manto himself, the reality of the division was no less filled with absurdity. Vazira Zamindar`s excellent recent study “The Long Partition and Making of Modern South Asia” begins with a report on Ghulam Ali, a Muslim from Lucknow, a city in north-central India specializing in the production of artificial limbs. He decided to live in India, but at the time the partition was announced, he was in a military workshop on the Pakistani side of the border. .